Respondents stated that they did not leave their abusers immediately because they put what they perceived to be, at the time, the best interest of their children ahead of their own, and not because leaving an abusive relationship, in itself, would bring shame to themselves or their extended family. Children took on a significant role in determining women’s behaviour to leave their abusers, confirming the importance of familism in their decisions, but also demonstrating that familism can operate independently from shame and pressure from the community, which will be discussed in more detail in the following subsection. Elsa was not alone in drawing attention to a change in behaviour in immigrants when arriving in England. These included not paying as much attention to children’s well-being as they would in Portugal and going out at night much more often than they would in Portugal. It could be argued that Diana’s more recent move to England, and therefore lesser exposure to a different culture, led her to find changes of behaviour in other Portuguese immigrants more striking than they did for Elsa. The impact of acculturation on perceptions of family life is discussed in more detail in the next section of this paper.

For this very reason, they take great pride in wearing quality fabrics and clothes and will invest their money in buying CupidBrides the best they can afford. For the Portuguese, family loyalty comes before other social relationships, even business.

The Afonso Costa’s Electoral Code of 1913 sealed off the loophole that had allowed Carolina Beatriz Ângelo, to vote in 1911. Portuguese women would have to wait 1931 when under Salazar were given the right to vote in Portugal provided they had completed secondary education.

  • Portugal is a country steeped in culture and tradition, and women dating expect guys to understand every aspect of them.
  • Our national team, when playing the qualifying for the World Cup , took two planes.
  • The average salary for a man with a doctorate is around 2,400 euros compared with only 1,600 euros for a woman.
  • The results showed a lack of knowledge on cervical cancer and the Pap smear test.

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Indeed, ‘verbal’ and ‘emotional’ violence were mentioned by a large number of respondents, with three considering psychological violence as the most insidious and difficult to overcome. Most respondents who mentioned physical and psychological violence then went on to describe in more detail what they meant by these categories of behaviour. ‘Hitting’ was the most common form of physical violence mentioned, with ‘socially isolating’ the other, ‘being cold’, ‘diminishing the other’, ‘being overly jealous’ and ‘bullying’ or ‘controlling’ given as examples of psychological violence. Respondents declined to answer questions that related to their income and perceived class, preferring instead to give more generic information regarding socio-economic factors related to household provision and employment status. Because a snowballing method was used and the participation rate was low, a decision was made to accept these answers as indicators of socio-economic status rather than risk alienating participants by pressing them on the questions as they were written in the interview schedule. Moreover, it was found that the class system in Portugal and ideas of class mobility in this country might not equate well with class stratification and mobility in England, thus skewing the analysis, rather than clarifying it. Eight respondents were the main providers of their households; this corresponds to the respondents who were single or divorced; the other respondents shared the provision equally with their partners.

She drew attention to the importance of culture in determining Portuguese women’s reactions and stated that this would make them endure and hide a violent relationship, especially if this led to a loss in social or economic status. In line with the findings of Barata et al. (Reference Barata, Mcnally, Sales and Steward 2005, p. 149), Catarina attributed women’s behaviour to ‘Latin culture’, which, according to her, differentiated Portuguese women’s behaviour from that of women from other cultures. Catarina thought that Latin culture led Portuguese women to value privacy and protect their family lives from outside intervention, which in turn encouraged them to endure and hide domestic violence. The community was often described as being ‘very traditional’ and there was a perception that this reflected Portuguese culture, which, in turn, had a marked influence on women’s understanding of and reactions to domestic violence. This became apparent when discussing topics such as the division of work within the household, or parents’ relationship with their children. To contextualise the notions of Portuguese culture used in this paper, it is useful to understand where some of these originate.

Implicit to this question is the possibility that the behaviour that other Portuguese women adopt might be different from that which respondents described as the appropriate one – a concept that they generally had no problem engaging with and indeed led women to become noticeably more relaxed and open to volunteer information. This question therefore worked well in overcoming the problem of social desirability in interviews, where respondents give an answer that they perceive to be what the interviewer is expecting from them, rather than their actual views on the subject. As discussed earlier, some respondents, such as Catarina, Elsa and Diana, mentioned ‘Latin culture’ or ‘Portuguese culture’ as a source of pressure for women to hide domestic violence. They said that this culture gave men more freedom in and outside households, and encouraged women to value privacy and family life.

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Like Josefinas, she supports the Wink Kriola project, which aims to create and offer reusable pads to underprivileged girls and women, so they don’t stop working or going to school because they can’t afford them. Writer and activist, Natália Correia had a very important political role in the fight for Human Rights and Women’s Rights. Her name is unfortunately not sufficiently mentioned internationally, but her role as a feminist is a great source of pride in Portugal.

This herbarium reveals Castro’s profound interest in nature, a major influencing factor in her decision to return to Madeira in 1983. Now these next three next facts, are more about Portuguese people in general, not necessarily only about Portuguese women. The use of images is only granted for private or educational/academic purposes. Use for educational purposes is defined as the non-commercial and non-advertising use of images in presentations, lectures, school or university projects, and academic or research publications of which no more than 1,000 not-for-profit copies are printed. The material may not be reproduced without first obtaining a licence from the author of the work or from the corresponding copyright holder .

“I got two pages for the women in the newspaper of the club, because we needed visibility at this stage. We created social media to get more fans to come along and get everyone to know , because it was a new thing at Sporting.

This created a certain level of reciprocity and was used to ensure, as much as possible, that the interview dynamic was non-hierarchical. It was likely that the interviewer’s socio-economic background would impact on respondents’ willingness to talk about their own background and personal experiences. Responses were recorded whenever participants authorised it, and notes were taken during the interviews. In order to protect participants’ anonymity, all names used in this paper are pseudonyms. Interviews lasted usually between one and two hours, and were conducted in locations chosen by the participants to ensure that they were comfortable and ease power imbalances that arise in any interview process. The interviews were conducted in Portuguese, which is the first language of both the researcher and the interviewees. It was hoped that this would allow respondents to express themselves more freely, without concerns about the correct use or understanding of the English language.

She is not only one of the most respected artists working in Britain today, but also a household name in Portugal. In 2009, a museum dedicated to her work –­ Casa das Histórias ­– opened in Cascais. Aurelia de Souza was born in 1866, at a time when Portuguese women were expected to be good wives and mothers, take care of all the cooking and cleaning in the household, and generally follow society’s rules. But instead of getting involved with domestic life, de Souza decided to paint it instead. She worked hard to make a name for herself as an artist; her subjects varied between daily scenes depicting the family life of women and children, landscapes , and herself, with her most famous artwork being her self-portrait painted in 1900. Throughout her life she pursued a career in the arts, exhibiting and selling her work in Portugal and Paris. Her talent was so great that was also invited to preside over the Porto Society of Fine Arts, which she declined, ultimately quitting to protest against the rise of membership fees and the lack of an exhibition room.

A so-called cookie stores identifiers that make it possible to respond to your individual requests. It contains a session ID – a unique, anonymous user ID combined with an authentication identifier . A security identifier is also stored to prevent a particular type of online attack. All of these fields are alpha-numeric, with almost no relation to your real identity. The only exception is that we monitor some requests with the IP address that you are currently using, so that we are able to detect malicious use or system defects. Additionally, a technical field is stored to ensure that some interactions are only processed in the browser tab that is currently active.

Portuguese culture was greatly influenced by the dominance of the Catholic Church and the traditional Christian values. They don’t easily accept innovation and radical changes both in the community and the family. Life in Portugal revolves around the family and even in the 21st century, some traditions and ways of life remain unchanged, especially in rural areas. Currently little is known about Portuguese women’s knowledge and beliefs about cervical cancer screening, so this information is crucial to the success of cervical cancer screening programs. The intention of this study was to describe the knowledge and beliefs of women in Portugal. The results showed a lack of knowledge on cervical cancer and the Pap smear test. From a public policy point of view, it may be important to further explore the extent to which perceived barriers to screening will affect screening uptake when a national screening program is implemented.

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Adolescent girls and young women remain disproportionately affected by HIV in Eastern and Southern Africa , with 26 per cent of new infections attributed to this population. AGYW face many personal, social and structural barriers to access, uptake and use of traditional HIV prevention methods. Oral Pre-exposure Prophylaxis is proven to be highly effective as an additional prevention choice for reducing the risk of HIV acquisition, including for AGYW. Successful uptake and adherence to PrEP is critical in its effectiveness as an HIV prevention method, however, the current demand for PrEP by AGYW is low with suboptimal adherence. Previous Portuguese research has focused on the relationship between perfectionism and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors, both in adolescent and adult samples. Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent public health problem among adolescents and young women, and are associated with the potential for serious physical problems, such as hypothermia, hypotension, electrolyte imbalance, endocrine disorders, and kidney failure. They normally will not be afraid to speak their minds and let you know what they assume, even when the truth might harm you.

  • Having two first names also isn’t too unusual in the English-speaking world, and it’s often done with people that are called Mary e.g.
  • There is some evidence the government’s measures to increase adult literacy were successful.
  • That way they can differentiate themselves from all the other Marias in their class.
  • The longitudinal follow-up of adult patients is relatively straightforward but similar longitudinal evaluation of the developing skeleton in paediatric patients is significantly more difficult and the data interpretation complex.

Every year secondary school rankings are divulged by several newspapers such as Público and Expresso. Programmes are sanctioned by the Certificado de Habilitações do Ensino Secundário/Diploma de Ensino Secundário (Secondary School Credential/Diploma), which is the prerequisite for access to higher education through national access examination. Due to the Portuguese sovereign debt crisis in the late 2000s, and the subsequent IMF-EU financial assistance to the Portuguese Republic from 2011 onward, many universities and other higher education institutions suffered financially. Many were on verge of bankruptcy and were forced to increase its admissions and tuition fees as the budget dwindled and the staff members and bonuses were being reduced. Under Salazar the number of elementary schools grew from 7,000 in 1927 to 10,000 in 1940. While the illiteracy rate under the twenty years of the First Republic had only dropped a modest 9%, under Salazar in twenty years, the illiteracy rate dropped 21%, from 61,8% in 1930 to 40,4% in 1950.

Using hidden cameras in the classrooms, the program shows the violent behavior of many young students inside the classroom of a very problematic unidentified school, and the chaos and fear often generated by those events. In 2004 and 2005, the Portuguese Ministry of Education reported over 1,200 aggressions inside Portuguese schools. The Doutorado is conferred by universities to those who have passed the Doctorate examinations and have defended a thesis, usually to pursue a teaching and researching career at university level. There is no fixed period to prepare for the Doctorate examinations. Candidates must hold a degree of Mestrado or Licenciatura (if their grade average is equal or higher than 16/20) and have competences and merit that are recognized by the university. The Bologna Process was a European reform process aimed at establishing a European Higher Education Area by 2010.

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Since its field application in 2006 it has been widely contested by students , and several universities had disrepute the concept by introducing integrated master’s degrees in several courses. In the mid-2000s, education policy was reorganised aiming more choice and better quality in vocational technical education.

However, to ingress university each superior course requires specific exams correspondent to subjects of a knowledge domain. 8The Bologna process lead to a new wave of reforms and changes in education since the late 1990s onwards, specially in the universities and polytechnics.Education in Portugal is free and compulsory until the age of 18, when students usually complete their year 12. The education is regulated by the State through the Ministry of Education. There is a system of public education and also many private schools at all levels of education. The first Portuguese medieval universities, such as the University of Coimbra, were created in the 13th century, and the national higher education system is fully integrated into the European Higher Education Area. Never before has the Council adopted a resolution explicitly dedicated to the protection of education.

That means you get serious history, palpable energy and a good helping of hip-looking bars. “All the rooms are different, and combine old and new,” Santos explained. For example, those on the second floor have retained what he called their namoradeira, “the ‘flirting windows’ where girls would sit and boys on the street below would try to attract their attention”. Our room was on the third floor, with a wrap-around balcony – perfect for watching the comings and goings through the city’s Arco da Porta Nova gate. They’re very lovely, energetic ladies who love to be blissful and spread actual love round.

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The content of games with a PEGI 3 rating is considered suitable for all age groups. The game should not contain any sounds or pictures that are likely to frighten young children. PEGI provides age classifications for video games in 38 European countries. The age rating confirms that the game is appropriate for players of certain age.

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Also located in Sagres, this snack bar has some simple vegan gluten-free options including dips, bruschetta, falafel, garlic bread, burgers and fries. This charming surf shop is run by Petrina and Mario, who have put tons of love and design details from their former life in Kuala Lumpur into the place. Furniture, wooden lamps and macramé wall hangings are almost all the work of Petrina or local designers. Apart from renting surf shacks and beach cabins they also offer to test/hire boards by Portuguese and international shaper . This coffee shop is a small, yet charming and really delicious place. Apart from vegan options like chia pudding, amazing coffee, matcha latte and other drinks, they offer preset vegan buddha bowl combinations or mix-your-own bowl from a list of ingredients. I created a ‘sushi’ bowl including rice, seaweed, avocado, cucumber, carrot and sesame seeds.

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Bone fragility was defined as low whole body less head bone mineral density measured by DXA (first tertile, 95% CI -1.1 to -0.9) and as past fractures evaluated by questionnaire. The results revealed concordance coefficient correlations between WBLH BMD and radial and tibial SoS of 0.129 and 0.038, respectively. The regression lines between DXA and QUS variables were different from the identity lines. Cross-classification analysis by Kappa statistic showed that only 34% and 36% of the 113 participants categorized in the first tertile of WBLH BMD were also categorized in the first tertile of tibial and radial SoS, correspondingly. Logistic regression with gender and maturity adjustments demonstrates that radial SoS was the single significant variable in predicting OR for identifying participants with past fractures. In conclusion, the radial QUS revealed itself to be a valuable tool for screening bone fragility in youth of yr, despite the absence of agreement with DXA WBLH BMD. Eating disorders are an increasingly prevalent health problem among adolescent girls.